Types of Sentences Based on Action (Kriya Ke Aadhar Per Vakya)


Understanding the different types of sentences based on their action is crucial to comprehend the nuances of the language. In linguistics, sentences are categorized based on the action or the verb they convey. Let’s dive into the four main types of sentences based on action in Hindi grammar (Kriya Ke Aadhar Per Vakya):

1. सकर्मक वाक्य (Sakarmak Vakya) – Transitive Sentences:

These are sentences where the action performed by the subject affects an object. The verb in a transitive sentence is always followed by an object. For example: “राम ने एक किताब पढ़ी।” (Ram read a book).

2. अकर्मक वाक्य (Akarmak Vakya) – Intransitive Sentences:

In intransitive sentences, the action performed by the subject does not require an object to make complete sense. The verb in these sentences does not need an object. For example: “सीता गाती है।” (Sita sings).

3. सहायक वाक्य (Sahayak Vakya) – Auxiliary Sentences:

Auxiliary sentences are used to form questions, negatives, and tenses in Hindi. These sentences always require a main verb to complete the sense. For example: “क्या तुम पढ़ सकते हो?” (Can you read?).

4. भाव वाक्य (Bhav Vakya) – Existential Sentences:

Existential sentences express the state of being or existence of the subject. These sentences typically do not have an action verb but convey a state or condition. For example: “वह खुश है।” (He is happy).

Structure of the Sentences:

  • Subject (कर्ता) – The one performing the action.
  • Verb (क्रिया) – The action or state of being.
  • Object (कर्म) – The one on whom the action is performed.

Key Points to Remember:

  • वाक्य (Vakya) is a group of words that convey a complete sense, statement, question, or command.
  • क्रिया (Kriya) is the action word in a sentence that denotes what the subject is doing.
  • कर्ता (Karta) is the one who performs the action in a sentence.
  • कर्म (Karm) is the object on which the action is performed.

Common Examples of Different Types of Sentences:

  • Transitive Sentence: “राम ने एक किताब खरीदी।” (Ram bought a book).
  • Intransitive Sentence: “राम सो रहा है।” (Ram is sleeping).
  • Auxiliary Sentence: “क्या तुमने किताब पढ़ी?” (Did you read the book?)
  • Existential Sentence: “समय अद्भुत है।” (Time is amazing).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1: What is the main difference between a transitive and intransitive sentence?

A1: The key difference lies in whether the verb in the sentence requires an object (transitive) or not (intransitive).

Q2: Can an intransitive verb take an object in a sentence?

A2: No, intransitive verbs do not require an object for the sentence to make sense.

Q3: How can one identify an auxiliary sentence in Hindi?

A3: Auxiliary sentences are often used to form questions, negatives, and tenses in the language.

Q4: Do all sentences in Hindi follow the subject-verb-object order?

A4: While most sentences in Hindi follow the Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order, there are exceptions based on emphasis and context.

Q5: What is the significance of Bhav Vakya in Hindi grammar?

A5: Bhav Vakya expresses the state of being or existence of the subject, highlighting emotions, feelings, or conditions.

Understanding the various types of sentences based on their action is fundamental in mastering the intricacies of Hindi grammar. By recognizing the different sentence structures and their functions, one can communicate effectively and accurately in the language.


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